The post-independence educational journey of India during the last six decades has been quite exciting, especially the impressive growth in the area of higher education. The trajectory of expansion, however, requires a qualitative shift. It must address issues relating to quality and inclusiveness. The new wave of institution-building should be supported by public investment. There are concerns that in the present phase of expansion, privatization and globalization might create serious distortions that adversely affect access, inclusiveness, and quality. This book analyzes the past developments in state-supported higher education, and it discusses why high quality could not have been sustained in the past. The institutional failures, both at the levels of policy and practices, are pointed out. The emerging issue at the system level is the proliferation of private providers resulting from the failure of public institutions to respond to the market. The book presents a critique to the neo-liberal agenda of reforms and it provides solutions through institutional and academic reforms. The salient features of finance through plan investment are further analyzed. The book provides solutions for the desired qualitative shift in higher education.